ปี 2001 เหตุแผ่นดินไหว ครั้งที่รุนแรง มีผู้เสียชีวิตมากกว่า 13,000 คน ที่รัฐกุจาราช และเป็นฝันร้ายตลอดมาของคนในเมือง แจมนาเกอร์
โรงกลั่นของ แจมนาเจอร์ อยู่ห่างไกลชุมชนมาก แต่การดำเนินการก่อสร้างฐานราก คงเป็น ฐานรากตื้นเป็นส่วนใหญ่ ไม่มีข้อมูลเสาเข็มที่ชัดเจน แต่ส่วนของ PipeRack ทั้งหมด ไม่น่าจะมีเสาเข็ม ใช้ค่ารับน้ำหนักปลอดภัยของดิน ที่ 30 ตัน/ม2 แต่ก้อมีหอสูงจำนวนมาก มีของมูลการใช้ เสาเข็มเจาะแต่ไม่ชัดเจน การดำเนินการก่อสร้าง ใช้เวลาสำหรับงานโยธาประมาณ 1 ปีครึ่ง เพิ่งเปิดใช้งาน ต้นปี 2010 ในส่วนขยายที่สร้างขึ้นใหม่ (เมื่อปี 2001 เดือน มกราคม เคยเกิดแผ่นดินไหวขนาด 6.9 ริกเตอร์ สร้างความเสียหายกับอาคารเก่าแก่จำนวนมาก ดูข้อมูลด้านล่าง)
When Bechtel completed the Reliance Jamnagar complex in northwest India, it was the largest refinery and petrochemicals complex ever built from the ground up. Now it's even bigger, and lays claim to being the world's largest oil-refining hub.
A second refinery, adjacent to the first, was completed in 2008, nearly doubling the facility's capacity to more than 1.2 million barrels per day.
Construction of the second refinery required over 200,000 engineering and supplier documents, 1.5 million cubic meters of concrete, more than 4 million meters of piping, and 4,400 pieces of major equipment. The work site itself covered an area larger than London.
At peak construction, the project employed more than 70,000 workers. In addition, Bechtel created a “virtual company” involving some 2,800 engineers and other professionals in 19 offices around the world—perhaps the most widely distributed workforce Bechtel has ever applied to a project.
Reliance Industries is the only Indian company included in the Fortune Global 500. And it continues to be a valued customer of Bechtel.
The Jamnagar complex in northwest India is the largest refinery and petrochemicals complex ever built from the ground up—and it’s about to get even bigger. Bechtel and Reliance Petroleum Ltd. are expanding Jamnagar in a project that will create the world’s largest oil-refining operation, period.
When Bechtel completed the design and construction of the first refinery at Jamnagar in 2000, it had a production capacity of 450,000 barrels of crude oil per day. Subsequently the capacity was increased to 650,000 barrels per day, and today, Jamnagar accounts for nearly one-quarter of India’s refining capacity.
A second refinery, under construction adjacent to the first, will nearly double the capacity, while also increasing the capability and flexibility of the complex by allowing it to utilize lower-grade crude oil and produce higher-value products. In addition to gasoline, diesel, jet, and other fuels produced by the original refinery, it will also increase production of polypropylene, which is used in the creation of products such as fibers, films, and household plastic goods. The gasoline and diesel are for export, predominantly to the United States and Europe.
Bechtel is undertaking the expansion with Reliance Petroleum Ltd., a new company created by Reliance Industries.
Building the new refinery entails over 200,000 engineering and supplier documents, installation of 165,000 tons (150,000 tonnes) and 53 million cubic feet (1.5 million cubic meters) of concrete, more than 4,400 pieces of major equipment in over a dozen complexes within the refinery, and 13 million feet (4 million meters) of piping. The site covers an area bigger than London, and more than 70,000 workers will be employed during the peak of construction.
To meet the challenge, Bechtel created a “virtual company” with global resources. Some 2,800 professionals are handling engineering, procurement, project management, and construction consulting from London, Houston, Frederick, Toronto, Shanghai, New Delhi, Mumbai, and Jamnagar. All told, the project encompasses 19 offices and 10 cities in five countries. Scott Johnson, program director for the new refinery, believes that this is the most widely distributed workforce Bechtel has ever applied to a project.
The goal is to make it possible for everybody to work together as if they’re in the same place, and Bechtel has ensured this outcome through a purpose-built communications network. This network reaches every location and enables simultaneous collaborative work on engineering drawings and other documents among people in multiple locations around the globe. Bechtel has also modified various software to facilitate the immense amount of sharing and record-keeping required.
Integrating the offices and communications has eased such tasks as ensuring that the output from the coker—designed by a subcontractor—and crude complexes supports the requirements for the clean fuels complex designed by Bechtel’s Houston office and the vacuum gas oil complex designed in London. “Now we think in terms of integrated work rather than separate engineering disciplines,” Johnson says.
The virtual team has been especially important in keeping the project on its aggressive record-breaking schedule. Work began in October 2005, with the first production train scheduled to begin operations 30 months later.
With Bechtel and Reliance sharing responsibility for the project, design and construction phases have significantly overlapped; construction is well under way before design is complete. As of January 2007, about 65 percent of the engineering had been finished, while crews in Jamnagar had already completed site preparation and poured over 50 percent of the concrete, including most of the concrete pipe racks. In addition, some 28,000 tons (25,000 tonnes) of structural steel and 20 percent of the piping have been fabricated.
The virtual organization also has been instrumental in procuring goods and services from far-flung suppliers at the best possible prices.
“The marketplace is robust—every day prices are increasing and deliveries getting longer, so buying early has saved money and time,” Johnson says. “We’ve placed orders for $3.5 billion worth of materials, including over 4,000 pieces of equipment, and a lot of this we bought before engineering was complete so we could lock in supplies ahead of shortages we could see coming. In some cases, we bought first and designed later around what we bought. But that’s part of keeping to the schedule.”
Transportation is another project in itself, requiring hundreds of ships. Ships have been identified and reserved for the largest equipment, which reaches more than 1,650 tons (1,500 tonnes) and close to 330 feet (100 meters) in length. In addition, the port serving the complex is being expanded to accommodate very large crude-oil carriers, along with additional ships to transport the export products.
The new refinery will open windows of opportunity within India. The first refinery, which Bechtel designed and built for Reliance Industries Ltd., was able to satisfy one-third of India’s needs for refined petroleum products in 2001, sustaining downstream activity worth $26 billion, one-sixth of India’s economy that year. It also enabled India to become a net exporter of oil products for the first time. The new refinery is expected to increase India’s exports, with its gasoline and diesel earmarked for the U.S. and European markets. According to Mukesh Ambani, Reliance Industries’ chairman, the new refinery supports the com-pany’s “two-fold strategy: strengthening the petroleum retailing business and enlarging the refining capacity.” Its scale is rivaled only by refineries being proposed for Taiwan and Kuwait.
Reliance Industries is the only Indian company included in the Fortune Global 500. It has had great success in an industry formerly dominated by state-owned companies, and its new chain of retail gas stations now accounts for 12 percent of diesel and 6 percent of gasoline sales in India. And it continues to be a valued customer of Bechtel.
UNESCO MISSION TO THE EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE DISTRICT IN GUJARAT, INDIA, FOR THE CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL PROPERTIES, MARCH 1-15, 2001
all photographs (except as marked) © by Randolph Langenbach / UNESCO, 2001
Click on photos to enlarge
1) Jamsaheb, the Maharaja of Jamnagar leading the visit to the ancient Durbargarh in Jamnagar. 2) This, the exterior gateway to the Darbargarh is all that the public has been aware of about the complex for almost 100 years.
FROM THE UNESCO REPORT: Of those monuments not under protection, the most significant ones found on this mission to be at the greatest risk are the original “Darbargarhs,” the city palaces of the former kings of the princely kingdoms that at one time made up the region. The Darbargarhs pre-dated the coming of the British, and thus contain architecture, art, and sometimes-even artifacts, dating back several hundred years with less influence from Europe. During the British Raj period, many of these Maharajas constructed new palaces on the edges of the cities and towns, moving out of the center of their cities and away from their subjects. As a result, some of these original palaces have seen little use for close to a hundred years. They have remained essentially in mothballs hidden away from view except for a few sections which are open to the public, such as the Aina Mahal Museum at the Darbargarh in Bhuj.
While many of the British period palaces are also architecturally significant and damaged as well, it is these older palaces that have been identified on this mission to embody the most cultural and historical significance to the region and to India as a whole. At the time that they were constructed and over the centuries that they were used, they formed the administrative and cultural center for the princely states.
The Darbargarh of Jamnagar is one of the most magical, yet least widely known, historic complex in all of India. Sir Bernard Feilden and William Connal, noted restoration architects inf Great Britain, consider this palace complex possibly to be the single most impressive secular heritage site in Western India.
The Darbargarh was inspected at the invitation of Jamsaheb, the Maharaja of Jamnagar. Entering parts of this extensive complex was like entering a lost world with extensive evidence of a rich a varied history, as well as possessing significant artistic and architectural details. Artifacts, some with evidence of not having been disturbed for more than a generation or two, were stacked or arranged in hidden rooms – rooms which remained locked and protected until the earthquake has now broken them open and placed the buildings and their contents at immediate of loss and destruction.
The Jamsaheb personally lead the site visit of the ancient palace complex, which was located in the heart of Jamnagar, but exists today as a hidden and nearly forgotten complex of ancient buildings. Because new palaces had been built in the early part of the 20th century under the British period on the outskirts of the city, this original palace has rarely been used for almost a century, and hardly at all for the last 30 years. The Jamnagar Darbargarh suffered significant damage in the earthquake, but not nearly as extensively as did the one in Bhuj. Visiting this complex was more like walking through a lost city, than a single building, with courtyards opening off of courtyards, each with its own distinctive art and architectural presentation. With the commentary by the Jamsaheb, the deep history of the place came alive as we passed through dusty rooms filled with wall paintings, mirrors in gilt frames, and thousands of dust covered and decaying artifacts of a departed way of life - a way of life, however, which existed near enough in time to be still within the living memory of some within the city.
2) Interior court and archway 3) Durbar Hall exterior
4) Durbar Hall interior. 5) Top floor mirror hall in the private apartments of the Maharaja 6) Screened porch of one apartment for one of the wives in the Harem section of the palace.
In rooms now cracked open in places by the earthquake were wall paintings showing armies of olive shaped eyed men and women in settings from battlefields to palaces and ashrams. In other rooms, thirty years of dust accumulation had to be swept away to reveal portraits of bejeweled princes, and photographs of city monuments. In one corner was an entire crate of ornamental swords in their scabbards. In another room – unseen by all but a few for several generations - was a room completely lined with ornamental mirrors and paintings – not unlike the one found in the Aina Mahal Museum in Bhuj, which now also is partly collapsed. The rooms in this ancient palace were for the most part small and intimate, not grand or vast, as found in the later palaces. Instead of being designed to impress one of wealth, they bespeak a way of life that was uniquely Indian – as the palaces in the pre-British period were not houses only for the Maharaja’s but small cities that housed the entire court that served as the government of each kingdom.
JAMNAGAR DARBARGARH; Rooms full of dust covered pictures of former nobles, princes, kings and views of the city - with the images visible only after the dust was wiped off - were opened up after the earthquake for the first time in years.